All About Rectal Cancer | OncoLink (2022)

What is the rectum?

The rectum is at the end of the colon. It is about 5 inches long. The rectum is normally empty, except when stool comes from the upper colon into the rectum just before a bowel movement. At that time, stool is ready to exit through the anal canal. The anal canal has two muscular "valves,” called the internal and external sphincters. Stool passes through these sphincters. The sphincters allow us to keep the stool in the body until we are ready to have a bowel movement. At this time the sphincters relax, releasing the stool.

All About Rectal Cancer | OncoLink (1)

What is rectal cancer?

Rectal cancer happens when cells in the wall of the rectum begin to grow out of control. Large collections of these out-of-control cells are called tumors.These tumors often begin when normal tissue in the rectum wall forms an adenomatous polyp, or pre-cancerous growth, growing on the rectal wall lining. As this polyp grows larger, the tumor forms. This process can take many years, which allows time for early detection with screening tests. Most rectal cancers are a type of cancer called adenocarcinoma.

What causes rectal cancer and am I at risk?

Each year, there are about 45,230new cases of rectal cancer diagnosed in the United States. It tends to occur more in men than in women. Colon and rectal cancers are often grouped together and have the same risk factors. The average age of diagnosis is 66 years of age, and risk increases with age. If you have a personal or family history of colorectal cancer or polyps, an inherited colorectal cancer syndrome (i.e.,Familial Adenomatous Polyposis(FAP) and Hereditary Non Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC), and/or have ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, you are at higher risk. You may need screening at an earlier age than the general population. If you have one first degree relative (parent, sibling or child) with colon cancer, you are 2 to 3 times as likely to develop the cancer as someone who does not have an affected relative. However, this does NOT mean that people without a family history are not at risk. About 80% of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed in people who would not be seen as "high risk.”

Studies of colorectal cancer cases found that some lifestyle factors may put you at higher risk. These factors include:

  • A diet high in fat and red meat.
  • A diet low in fruits and vegetables.
  • High calorie diet.
  • Low levels of physical activity.
  • Obesity.

Smoking and drinking alcohol may also play a role in colorectal cancer risk.

Despite avoiding all of these factors, some people will still develop colon or rectal cancer.

How can I prevent rectal cancer?

Given the risk factors listed above, a low-fat diet, one that is high in fruits/vegetables and low in red meat, getting regular exercise, and keeping a healthy body weight may help prevent colon or rectal cancer. You should also avoid smoking and alcohol.

The term “chemoprevention” can be defined as “the use of a chemical compound to prevent, inhibit, or reverse the formation of the cancer.” There are studies looking at vitamins A, E, D, and C, folic acid, calcium, selenium, aspirin, cox-2 inhibitors, and hormone replacement therapy as possiblechemopreventive agentsthat may prevent or reverse the formation of polyps and colorectal cancer. These studies have been inconclusive, and no specific recommendations have been made for the general population. Some of these agents continue to be tested in clinical trials.

What screening tests are used for rectal cancer?

The one screening test that is specific to rectal cancer is a digital rectal exam (DRE). During a DRE, the provider inserts a gloved finger into the patient's rectum and feels for abnormal growths or strictures (narrowing). Other screening tests are the same as those used forcolon cancer screening, including fecal occult blood testing, colonoscopy, and sigmoidoscopy. These tests screen both the colon and the rectum.

Some tumors and polyps may bleed, and this blood can be detected in stool samples by a test called fecal occult blood testing (FOBT). By itself, FOBT can only find about 24% of cancers. It is recommended by the American Cancer Society that FOBT be done every year, along with a flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years, after age 50. These two tests find about 76% of colorectal tumors. The sigmoidoscope is a thin, flexible tube that is able to view the rectum and the lowest part of the colon. If a polyp or tumor is found with this test, the patient will be referred for a fullcolonoscopy.

The colonoscope, which is used during a colonoscopy, is similar to the sigmoidoscope, but is longer and can view the entire rectum and colon. If a polyp is found, the physician can remove it and send it to a pathology lab to determine if it is adenomatous (cancerous). The American Cancer Society recommends that a colonoscopy be done every 10 years after age 45, up until age 75. Patients with a family or personal history should have more frequent screenings. These should begin at an age that is ten years younger than their relative was at diagnosis. Patients with a history of ulcerative colitis are also at increased risk and should have more frequent screening than the general public. You should talk with your care team about which screening method is best for you, and how often it should be done.

Other screening tests that can detect cancer include the fecal immuochemical test (FIT) and stool DNA tests (Cologuard®). These tests offer the convenience of home testing and minimal pre-test preparation, but may not detect all tumors and may not be covered by insurance. These tests should only be used by those with low risk of colorectal cancer and under the direction of a healthcare provider.

What are the signs of rectal cancer?

Unlike colon cancers, most rectal cancers cause symptoms. These include:

  • Red blood seen in the stool.
  • Unexplained constipation, switching with diarrhea.
  • Changes in the diameter of stool (patients may notice "pencil-thin stools").
  • Tenesmus, which is a sensation of needing to have a bowel movement when you don't have to and/or being unable to empty the rectum.
  • If tumors have become more advanced, they can invade the nearby tissues and cause bladder incontinence (the inability to hold your urine) or pain due to pressure in the buttocks or perineum.

How is rectal cancer diagnosed?

Once rectal cancer is found by the screening tests, more tests are needed to know the extent of the tumor. The tests used to determine spread of the tumor are:

  • CT scans.
  • MRIs.
  • Endoscopic ultrasound(EUS): A type of ultrasound that uses sound waves to determine the depth of the tumor and whether surrounding lymph nodes are involved.
  • A biopsy is often done during an EUS, colonoscopy or proctoscopy (a test which views only the rectal area), which allows your care provider to determine the type of tumor.
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) level is a marker for colorectal cancer that is found in the blood and is elevated in 95% of cases. Women with advanced tumors should also have a pelvic exam to assess if the tumor has invaded into the vagina or cervix.

In addition to the tests noted above, a tumor sample may be sent to a pathology lab. This can be done with a biopsy specimen or a larger specimen, which is removed during surgery. The pathologist will prepare apathology report. This is a written report that will give you more details about the tumor type, size, and any changes specific to your tumor.

The tissue from the biopsy should be checked for mutations of four mismatched repair (MMR) genes and microsatellite instability (MSI). This should be done in all stages of colorectal cancer. The MMR genes includeMSH2,MLH1,MSH6, andPSM2.Abnormalities with MMR testing may indicate that the tumor has occurred due to an inherited cancer syndrome.Microsatellite changes occur in the sequencing of the DNA in tumor cells or in the inability to repair mistakes made when DNA is copied in the cell. When this happens, it is called microsatellite instability (MSI). MSI can be categorized as MSI high (MSI-H), Microsatellite stable (MSS), or MSI low (MSI-L). This information can help guide treatment. Patients who have metastatic colorectal cancer should also have their tumor tissue genotyped for RAS mutations, which includes KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutations. These results can help decide treatment options.

How is rectal cancer staged?

Staging helps determine how far the cancer has grown, and if it has spread to other organs or lymph nodes. Using the tests mentioned above, a stage is determined to choose the best treatment options. The TNM system (also called tumor - node - metastasis system) describes:

  • The size of the tumor (T).
  • If the lymph nodes are involved (N).
  • If it has spread to other areas of the body (M).

Colorectal cancers can also be graded low grade or high grade. Grade focuses on how different the cancer cells look from a normal cell. High grade cancers tend to grow and spread more rapidly.

The staging system is very complex, and the entire staging system is outlined at the end of this article.Though complicated, the staging system helps healthcare providers determine the extent of the cancer, and in turn, make treatment decisions for a patient's cancer. The stage of cancer, or extent of disease, is based on information gathered through the various tests done as the diagnosis and work-up of the cancer is being performed.

How is rectal cancer treated?

Rectal cancer is treated in a number of ways. You and your care team will decide the best course of treatment for your specific needs.


Over the past several years, there have been many improvements insurgical techniquesfor the treatment of rectal cancer. In the past, most patients needed a colostomy after rectal cancer surgery and had many side effects (such as incontinence and male impotence) from nerve damage that often occurred during the surgery. The use of preoperative chemoradiation (combination of chemotherapy and radiation) and improved surgical techniques has led to fewer side effects and fewer patients requiring colostomy. Preoperative chemoradiation (called neoadjuvant therapy) can also improve the success rate of completely removing the tumor.

Surgery is the most common treatment for rectal cancers. If the tumor is small, it can be removed by a surgical procedure called local excision, which removes only the cancerous area. Patients with stage 0 and I disease are often treated with surgery only.

A larger tumor requires a resection (removal of the tumor and some healthy tissue surrounding it) and anastomosis (the two tumor-free ends of the bowel are reconnected). If the bowel ends cannot be reconnected, a colostomy is made.

The most common surgery is the total mesorectal excision or TME. This surgery removes the rectum and the mesorectum, an area of fatty tissue below the rectum that contains lymph nodes. This is the most common area for the cancer to spread. The number of patients requiring colostomy with this surgery is low. TME, along with neoadjuvant chemoradiation (given before surgery), has led to decreases in recurrences in the rectal area.

Surgeons used to do the resection through the abdomen (called abdomino-perineal resection or APR). Today, the TME is most often performed with a low anterior resection (LAR), which typically allows the rectal sphincter to remain intact.

In some cases, even though the surgeon is able to remove all of the visible tumor, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy may be recommended to prevent the cancer from coming back (called recurrence). These recommendations are based on what the pathologist finds when looking at the tumor under a microscope, including if the margins of the specimen are free of tumor, the tumor size, and if any blood vessels or lymph nodes are involved.

The normal rectum acts as a holding area for stool. When an ultra-low rectal resection and anastomosis are needed, the holding area is lost, leading to more frequent bowel movements and/or incontinence. To help this problem, the colonic J-pouch was developed. This procedure uses the remaining bowel to create a J-shaped pouch, which then acts as a new holding area for the stool. It is usually about 5-6 cm long and reduces the number of bowel movements and incontinence.

Radiation and Chemotherapy

Patients with stage II and III disease are at a high risk of recurrence and should be treated withchemotherapyandradiation. This can be doneeither pre-operatively (before surgery, also called neoadjuvant therapy) or in conjunction with post-operative therapy (after surgery, also called adjuvant therapy).

Due to the large size of the pelvis (the bony structure in which the rectum lies), it is often hard for a surgeon to remove enough normal surrounding tissue in order to have tumor-free margins. This is especially true for larger tumors. Giving chemoradiation pre-operatively can shrink a tumor that would not have been able to be removed with surgery, making these patients candidates for potentially curative surgery. This is known as "downstaging" the tumor. Downstaging with chemoradiation has also allowed patients with tumors that would otherwise require a colostomy to now have a resection and anastomosis (reconnection of the bowel) following treatment. Studies have shown that givingfluorouracil (5-FU)orcapecitabine(5FU pro-drug) in combination with radiation therapy (called chemoradiation) before surgery (called neoadjuvant therapy) results in less short and long term side effects and fewer recurrences of the tumor in the rectal area. Because of this, neoadjuvant therapy has become the standard of care for rectal cancer.

Treatment for Metastatic Disease (cancer that has spread)

Treatment recommendations for patients with metastatic disease depend on whether the patient is able to receive intensive therapy. Chemotherapy options for patients with metastatic disease depend on what treatment they initially received. Clinical trial participation may be recommended before standard therapy.

Patients with stage IV rectal cancer may be offered resection of the tumor (surgery), radiation and/or chemotherapy. Some patients may be candidates for surgical management of cancer that has spread to other nearby organs (i.e. liver, ovaries). Most of these treatments are done to help symptoms but are not considered curable.

Chemotherapy options for patients with advanced disease can include a combination offluorouracil,capecitabine,leucovorin,irinotecan,oxaliplatin,regorafenib,trifluridine and tipiracil,bevacizumab,panitumumab,cetuximab,nivolumab,ramucirumab,ziv-aflibercept, andpembrolizumab. Regimens using irinotecan or oxaliplatin were found to be more effective than fluorouracil and leucovorin alone in these patients.

Bevacizumab, ramucirumab and ziv-aflibercept are types of anti-angiogenic therapy. These work by blocking vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF). Tumors need nutrients to survive and are able to get these nutrients by growing new blood vessels. This medication works by attacking the new blood vessels the tumor has formed -- in other words, by cutting off its food source. These agents may be used in combination with chemotherapy. Regorafenib is an oral targeted therapy called a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). A kinase is an enzyme that promotes cell growth. There are many types of kinases, which control different phases of cell growth. Regorafenib targets several different receptors and blocks tumor growth and angiogenesis (the development of a blood supply to the tumor).

Trifluridine and Tipracil (Lonsurf) is an oral combination chemotherapy that interferes with the DNA of tumor cells and prevents cells from growing. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is abnormally over expressed in many cancers (including those of the colon and rectum). Inhibiting EGFR may result in a decrease in tumor cell growth and decreased production of other factors responsible for metastasis (tumor spread). Patients without KRAS mutations (KRAS wild-type) seem to respond best to this therapy and therefore have additional treatment options with anti-EGFR agents. Cetuximab (Erbitux) and panitumumab (Vectibix) are types of monoclonal antibodies that target cancer cells specifically, sparing the normal cells and therefore causing different side effects than traditional chemotherapy.Panitumumaband cetuximab work by blocking the binding of epidermal growth factor to EGFR, preventing epidermal growth factor from working and slowing or stopping cancer growth.

Nivolumab and Pembolizumab are types of monoclonal antibodies which work to stimulate the immune system to destroy cancer cells. T-cells are a type of white blood cell that are very important for normal functioning of the immune system. These medications work as a form of immunotherapy by binding to the "programmed death receptor" (PD1) found on T-cells to stimulate the immune system to find and kill cancer cells. These agents are used in tumors that showed deficiency in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes (dMMR) or tumors that have high expression of microsatellite instability (MSI-H).

(Video) Colon v. Rectal Cancer: What you need to know

Clinical Trials

There are clinical research trials for most types of cancer, and every stage of the disease. Clinical trials are designed to determine the value of specific treatments. Trials are often designed to treat a certain stage of cancer, either as the first form of treatment offered, or as an option for treatment after other treatments have failed to work. They can be used to evaluate medications or treatments to prevent cancer, detect it earlier, or help manage side effects. Clinical trials are extremely important in furthering our knowledge of this disease. It is through clinical trials that we know what we do today, and many exciting new therapies are currently being tested. Talk to your provider about participating in clinical trials in your area. You can also explore currently open clinical trials using theOncoLink Clinical Trials Matching Service.

Follow-up Care and Survivorship

Once a patient has completed treatment, they will be followed closely for recurrence. Follow up recommendations after treatment for rectal cancer include:

  • A physical exam (including digital rectal exam) every 3 months for 2 years, then every 6 months for 3 years.
  • CEA level checked (if elevated at diagnosis) every 3 months for 2 years, then every 6 months for 3 years.
  • Colonoscopy in 1 year, with a repeat in 1 year if abnormal, or every 2-3 years if no polyps are found.
  • A pelvic CT scan is recommended every 6-12 months in patients with more localized disease. A CT scan of the chest, abdomen and pelvis are recommended annually for patients who have a high risk of colon cancer recurrence. For patients who have completed treatment for stage IV disease, a pelvic CT is recommended every 3-6 months for the first 2 years.

Fear of recurrence, financial impact of cancer treatment, employment issues and coping strategies are common emotional and practical issues experienced by rectal cancer survivors. Your healthcare team can identify resources for support and management of these practical and emotional challenges faced during and after cancer.

Cancer survivorship is a relatively new focus of oncology care. With nearly 17 million cancer survivors in the U.S. alone, there is a need to help patients transition from active treatment to survivorship. What happens next, how do you get back to normal, what should you know and do to live healthy going forward? A survivorship care plan can be a first step in educating yourself about navigating life after cancer and helping you communicate knowledgeably with your healthcare providers. Create a survivorship care plan today onOncoLink.

Resources for More Information

Colon Cancer Alliance

The Colon Cancer Alliance brings the voice of survivors to battle colorectal cancer through patient support, education, research and advocacy.

Fight Colorectal Cancer

Provides advocacy, education and support.

Chris 4 Life Colon Cancer Foundation

Provides education, support and funds research.

The Colon Club

Promotes education and awareness in interesting and out of the box ways.

American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons

Society for colon and rectal surgeons and other surgeons dedicated to the treatment of patients with diseases and disorders affecting the colon, rectum and anus.

Physicians with decades of experience and specialized training in caring for these types of problems have contributed text and images to this website.

Appendix: Complete Rectal Cancer Staging

American Joint Committee on Cancer (3.2019)

Primary Tumor (T)



Primary tumor cannot be assessed


No evidence of primary tumor


Carcinoma in situ; intramucosal carcinoma (involvement of lamina propria with no extension through muscularis mucosae)


Tumor invades the submucosa (through the muscularis mucosa but not into the muscularis propria)


Tumor invades the muscularis propria


Tumor invades through the muscularis propria into the pericolorectal tissues

(Video) Rectal Cancer | Q&A


Tumor invades the visceral peritoneum or invades or adherestoadjacent organ or structure


Tumor invades through the visceral peritoneum (including gross perforation of the bowel through tumor and continuous invasion oftumor through areas of inflammation to the surface of the visceralperitoneum)


Tumor directly invades or adheres to adjacent organs or structures

Regional Lymph Nodes (N)



Regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed


No regional lymph node metastasis


One to three regional lymph nodes are positive (tumor in lymphnodes measuring ≥0.2 mm), or any number of tumor deposits are present and all identifiable lymph nodes are negative


One regional lymph node is positive


Two or three regional lymph nodes are positive


No regional lymph nodes are positive, but there are tumor deposits in the subserosa, mesentery, or nonperitonealized pericolic, or perirectal/mesorectal tissues


Four or more regional lymph nodes are positive


Four to six regional lymph nodes are positive


Seven or more regional lymph nodes are positive

Distant Metastasis (M)



No distant metastasis by imaging, etc.; no evidence of tumor in distant sites or organs


Metastasis to one or more distant sites or organs orperitoneal metastasis is identified


Metastasis to one site or organ is identified withoutperitoneal metastasis


Metastasis to two or more sites or organs is identifiedwithout peritoneal metastasis


Metastasis to the peritoneal surface is identified alone orwith other site or organ metastases


(Video) Updates in Rectal Cancer








































(Video) What is Colorectal Cancer?


















Any T

Any N



Any T

Any N



Any T

Any N



NCCN Guidelines, Rectal Cancer, 2019, (log in required),

American Cancer Society Key Statistics for Colorectal Cancer, retrieved 8 Nov 2017,

Bosset, J. F., Calais, G., Mineur, L., Maingon, P., Stojanovic-Rundic, S., Bensadoun, R. J., ... & Marchal, D. (2014). Fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer: long-term results of the EORTC 22921 randomised study.The Lancet Oncology,15(2), 184-190.

Grimm, L., & Fleshman, J. W. (2013, September). Modern rectal cancer surgery—Total mesorectal excision—The standard of care. InSeminars in Colon and Rectal Surgery(Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 125-131). WB Saunders.

Haynes, A. B., You, Y. N., Hu, C. Y., Eng, C., Kopetz, E. S., Rodriguez‐Bigas, M. A., ... & Chang, G. J. (2014). Postoperative chemotherapy use after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer: Analysis of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare data, 1998‐2007.Cancer,120(8), 1162-1170.

Johnson, C. M., Wei, C., Ensor, J. E., Smolenski, D. J., Amos, C. I., Levin, B., & Berry, D. A. (2013). Meta-analyses of colorectal cancer risk factors.Cancer Causes & Control,24(6), 1207-1222.

Moore, J. S., & Aulet, T. H. (2017). Colorectal cancer screening.Surgical Clinics,97(3), 487-502.

National Cancer Institute (2017) Rectal cancer treatment. Retrieved 8 Nov 2017,

Sorich, M. J., Wiese, M. D., Rowland, A., Kichenadasse, G., McKinnon, R. A., & Karapetis, C. S. (2014). Extended RAS mutations and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody survival benefit in metastatic colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials.Annals of Oncology,26(1), 13-21.

(Video) 6 Warning Signs of Colon Cancer

Van Blarigan, E. L., & Meyerhardt, J. A. (2015). Role of physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis.Journal of Clinical Oncology,33(16), 1825-1834.

Wilkes, G.M. (2011). Colon, Rectal & Anal Cancer. In Yarbro C.H, Wujcik, D. & Gobel, B.H. (Eds.). Cancer Nursing (pp. 1237-1246). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.


What is the number one cause of rectal cancer? ›

You're more likely to develop colorectal cancer if you have a parent, sibling or child with colon or rectal cancer. Eating a diet low in vegetables. Colorectal cancer may be associated with a diet low in vegetables and high in red meat, particularly when the meat is charred or well done. Too little exercise.

Where does rectal cancer usually spread to first? ›

While cancer can spread anywhere, there are specific locations where rectal cancer is more likely to spread. The most common are the liver and lungs, as well as the peritoneum (abdominal lining) and brain.

Is rectal cancer completely curable? ›

Rectal cancer is a disease in which cancer cells develop in the rectum. Signs of rectal cancer include diarrhea, constipation or blood in your poop. Treatments include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Rectal cancer is curable, especially when detected early through screening methods like colonoscopy.

How quickly does rectal cancer progress? ›

In most cases, colon and rectal cancers develop slowly over many years. Most of these cancers begin as a growth of tissue called a polyp in the inner lining of the colon or rectum. Usually polyps bulge into the colon or rectum; some are flat.

Who is most at risk for rectal cancer? ›

Colorectal cancer can occur in young adults and teenagers, but the majority of colorectal cancers occur in people older than 50. For colon cancer, the average age at the time of diagnosis for men is 68 and for women is 72. For rectal cancer, it is age 63 for both men and women.

Can you survive rectal cancer? ›

For rectal cancer, the overall 5-year survival rate for people is 67%. If the cancer is diagnosed at a localized stage, the survival rate is 90%. If the cancer has spread to surrounding tissues or organs and/or the regional lymph nodes, the 5-year survival rate is 73%.

What are signs that rectal cancer has spread? ›

Metastatic rectal cancer can produce a number of symptoms, including:
  • Pain in the rectum.
  • Bloody or unusual stool.
  • Changes in bowel movements.
  • Pain when passing stool.
  • Diarrhea and/or constipation.
  • Fatigue.
  • Unexplained weight loss.

How fast does rectal cancer spread to the liver? ›

Liver Metastasis Can Happen Fast

About 20% to 25% of people are first diagnosed with colon cancer after the cancer has already spread to the liver, according to a study in Euroasian Journal of Hepato-Gastroenterology, and 40% to 50% see spread to the liver within three years of the original colon cancer diagnosis.

Does rectal cancer hurt? ›

Cancer of the rectum should be considered whenever there is rectal bleeding, even if other causes such as hemorrhoids are present. A person may feel as if there is incomplete evacuation. There usually is no pain until later stages of the condition.

What diet causes rectal cancer? ›

What Type of Foods Cause Colorectal Cancer?
  • Red meat.
  • Processed meats.
  • White bread.
  • Sugary beverages.

What were your first signs of rectal cancer? ›

Rectal Cancer Signs & Symptoms
  • rectal bleeding or blood in your stool.
  • a change in your bowel habits, such as diarrhea, constipation, or narrow stool that lasts more than a few days.
  • unexplained abdominal pain or cramping.
  • a persistent urge to have a bowel movement that doesn't go away after you have one.

What are the early warning signs of bowel cancer? ›

6 Early Warning Symptoms of Colon Cancer
  • Bleeding. Watch out for bright red rectal bleeding or dark, tarry stools, which could indicate the presence of blood.
  • Stomach pain. Look for persistent abdominal pain, discomfort, or bloating.
  • Change in bowel habits. ...
  • Tenesmus. ...
  • Unexplained weight loss. ...
  • Fatigue/weakness.
Jun 13, 2019

It’s been nearly 20 years since I went into remission. But cancer still haunts me. The thought of it returning terrifies me.

It’s been more than 21 years since I was first told I had cancer and nearly 20 years since I last got into remission.. If you’re told by a doctor that you may have cancer, maybe you try to put it out of your mind, assume “it will all work out,” keep yourself busy, or trust a higher power will protect you.. I’ve always been curious about other people, how things work, and why things are the way they are.. If bad news might be on the horizon, I’ll find out all the things that could happen and how.. You try to choose the most successful path, and a “do or die” choice without options will fail your client if things don’t go your way.. I’ve had my share of bad news during treatment.. He gave me the good news I didn’t have Hodgkin’s.. Over time, it makes a mess of your blood and bone marrow, including the cells keeping your bones healthy.. My endocrinologist (who works with people with parathyroid problems) and I had another discussion about multiple myeloma.. He said the one test result didn’t mean much, other test results were contrary to multiple myeloma, and numerous other things were or weren’t going on, showing I didn’t have the disease.. The test was negative and my bones aren’t falling apart (always a good thing).. Twenty years ago, for the most part, I got shrugged shoulders and was told to go home.

Una descripción general de la información que podría incluirse en su informe de patología mamaria.

Después de una cirugía de cáncer de seno, es posible que se describan en el informe grandes trozos de tejido y ganglios linfáticos.. El cáncer de seno comienza en un conducto o lóbulo y esto, junto con su apariencia al microscopio, determina el tipo de cáncer de seno que es.. Se considera un factor de riesgo para desarrollar cáncer de seno en el futuro en cualquiera de las dos mamas.. Cáncer de mama inflamatorio (IBC) El IBC (por sus siglas en inglés) también es raro, ya que representa el 1-5% de los casos de cáncer de seno.. En el grado nuclear 1, el núcleo de las células cancerosas se parece más a las células normales, mientras que en el grado nuclear 3, se parece menos a las células normales.. Cuando el patólogo examina el tumor y el tejido circundante en la muestra, observan los pequeños vasos sanguíneos y el drenaje linfático para ver si hay células tumorales en ellos.. Durante una cirugía de cáncer de mama, se extirpan los ganglios linfáticos y se comprueba la presencia de células cancerosas.. El gen Her-2/neu estimula la producción de una proteína que se encuentra en la superficie de las células del cáncer de mama y que les indica a las células que crezcan y se dividan.. En aproximadamente el 10 y 20 % de los cánceres de mama, hay demasiadas copias del gen o la proteína está sobreexpresada en la superficie de la célula, lo que hace que el cáncer crezca más rápido y sea más agresivo.. Los tumores de las mamas se examinan de manera rutinaria, con una de las dos pruebas disponibles, para ver si tienen demasiadas copias del gen o si expresan la proteína en exceso.. El sistema de estadificación más comúnmente usado para los cánceres de mama es el sistema de estadificación del Comité conjunto estadounidense sobre el cáncer (American Joint Committee on Cancer, AJCC).

Colorectal Cancer statistics

% of All New Cancer Cases7.9%. % of All Cancer Deaths8.6%. View Data Table Rate of New Cases and Deaths per 100,000: The rate of new cases of colorectal cancer was 37.7 per 100,000 men and women per year.. These rates are age-adjusted and based on 2015–2019 cases and deaths.. Colorectal cancer represents 7.9% of all new cancer cases in the U.S.. The rate of new cases of colorectal cancer was 37.7 per 100,000 men and women per year based on 2015–2019 cases, age-adjusted.. All statistics in this report are based on statistics from SEER and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics.. The statistics presented in these stat facts are based on the most recent data available, most of which can be found in SEER*Explorer .

CBD has long been utilised for its various therapeutic effects, but what about its effect on cancer? Read on to find out more about what the research shows

Many studies investigating the relationship between CBD and cancer involved mice or human cells in the lab.. CBD was also able to inhibit the expression and growth of epidermal growth factor receptors in lung cancer cells(7).. These include elevated blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, inflammation within the body, and obesity.. The research on topical CBD products like CBD oil and their effects on pain management has been promising, with many recent studies showing CBD oil’s role in reducing inflammation and overall discomfort due to various health conditions like cancer.. While studies have shown promising CBD results in lowering several key risk factors for cancer, such as inflammation and blood pressure, results are still inconclusive for cancer prevention.. Because this research field is still growing, an increase in the use of these products, including CBD oils, for common side effects of cancer, like pain and insomnia, is to be expected.


1. 5x5 Rectal Cancer Treatment Protocol | Q&A
(Johns Hopkins Medicine)
2. What is Colorectal Cancer? - Mayo Clinic
(Mayo Clinic)
3. What You Need to Know About Colon Cancer
(Stanford Health Care)
4. Colorectal Cancer Facts
(Michigan Medicine)
5. New Colorectal Cancer Screening Guidelines | Carl Nordstrom, MD | UCLA Digestive Diseases
(UCLA Health)
6. Colorectal Cancer - Overview
(Armando Hasudungan)

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Birthday: 1992-09-29

Address: Apt. 994 8891 Orval Hill, Brittnyburgh, AZ 41023-0398

Phone: +26417467956738

Job: District Marketing Strategist

Hobby: Embroidery, Bodybuilding, Motor sports, Amateur radio, Wood carving, Whittling, Air sports

Introduction: My name is Prof. An Powlowski, I am a charming, helpful, attractive, good, graceful, thoughtful, vast person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.